APF® is a multi-spectrum coagulant and flocculant that removes pollutants from solution and flocculates fine suspended solids, such as skin cells and bacteria, into large particles that are easily removed by AFM® (Activated Filter Media). No single flocculant or coagulant can remove everything from the water. APF® is a precise combination of 6 different electrolytes and polyelectrolytes to cover the widest possible range. Dissolved constituents of water make up 80 % of the oxidation demand and suspended solids around 20%. Everything that is filtered out does not need to be oxidised. When the correct flocculation is used in combination with AFM®, oxidation demand is reduced and RedOx potential increases. In chlorinated systems unwanted disinfection by-products are reduced by up to 80 %.

UNIQUE benefits


Step One

Filtration with AFM®

Step Two

Coagulation and Flocculation with APF® and ZPM®

Step Three

Catalytic Oxidation with AC

How to use APF®?

Optimising Chlorinated and Biological LSS

How to use APF®?

APF® should be dosed into the water at a constant very slow flow rate. 0.5 - 1ml. of APF® is injected per m3 of water circulated through the filters. Only peristaltic pumps such as the Dryden Aqua flocculation pump should be used. For best results, APF® should be injected directly via a Dryden Aqua ZPM® static mixer, located between the pumps and the AFM® filters. The pH should be neutral, alkalinity should be greater than 30ppm.

Dosage Monitoring and Control.

Once commissioned, dosage can be monitored by weekly Aluminium analyses using Al test reagents in a standard spectrophotometer. Drinking water guidelines allow a maximum Al concentration of 0.2 mg/l. Optimal APF® flocculation requires 0.05 - 0.1ml per m3 of filtration turnover.

Performance of APF®?

AFM® filter media provides nominal filtration down to 5µ (at 20m/hr filtration velocity). When APF® is used, nominal filtration of 0.1µ is reached, so parasites such as Vibrio, Cryptosporidians, Giardia and Mycobacteria (Candida, Aspergillus) are removed from the water. APF® also contains NoPhos to remove phosphates from the water. If there are no dissolved phosphates, then bacteria and algae simply cannot grow. The improved filtration performance offered by APF® not only makes LSS safer and healthier, it can reduce chemical oxidant demand by up to 80 % and help protect our environment.

What is Coagulation?

Coagulation; is the process of dragging chemicals out of solution to form colloidal suspensions of small particles. In order to make coagulation work, APF® must be mixed instantly and aggressively with the water, this is why we designed the ZPM®. If a ZPM® is not used, the coagulation stage is missed, organics will remain in solution and APF® jumps to flocculation.

What is Flocculation?

Flocculation; is the process of bringing colloidal suspensions of small particles (organic detritus, bacteria and parasites) together to form larger flocs that can be easily removed by AFM®. APF® imparts a positive charge to particles that are then attracted to the negatively charge surface of AFM®. Flocculation takes several minutes and the particle floc is very fragile, so the water must not be subjected to aggressive agitation

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